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Note:If your park does not appear in the list, it likely has not been added to the Open Street Map database. You can add it yourself using Open Street Map editor tools. You can learn more about Open Street Map here.
The values that have been assigned are based on the TEEB (The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity) database. You can download it here.
Ecosystem services are the benefits people obtain from ecosystems. They are the direct and indirect contributions of ecosystems to human well-being. They support directly or indirectly our survival and quality of life. According to TEEB, ecosystem services can be categorized in four main types:
Provisiong services are the products obtained from ecosystems such as food, fresh water, wood, fiber, genetic resources and medicines.
Regulating services are defined as the benefits obtained from the regulation of ecosystem processes such as climate regulation, natural hazard regulation, water purification and waste management, pollination or pest control.
Habitat services highlight the importance of ecosystems to provide habitat for migratory species and to maintain the viability of gene-pools.
Cultural services include non-material benefits that people obtain from ecosystems such as spiritual enrichment, intellectual development, recreation and aesthetic values.
Ecosystems provide invaluable services. A few their benefits include: Clean and store fresh water, Maintain air quality, Regulate climate, Mitigate floods and runoff, Prevent erosion, Maintain soil productivity, Store and recycle nutrients, Abate noise, Pollinate crops, Maintain biological and genetic diversity, Provide recreational opportunities, Supply habitat, Provide medicines and pharmaceutical, and Provide food, fiber and energy.
Ecosystem valuation can be a difficult and controversial task, and economists have often been criticized for trying to put a “pricetag” on nature. However, agencies in charge of protecting and managing natural resources must often make difficult spending decisions that involve tradeoffs in allocating resources. These types of decisions are economic decisions, and thus are based, either explicitly or implicitly, on society’s values.Economists classify ecosystem values into several types. The two main categories are use values and non-use, or “passive use” values. Whereas use values are based on actual use of the environment, non-use values are values that are not associated with actual use, or even an option to use, an ecosystem or its services.
.Thus, use value is defined as the value derived from the actual use of a good or service, such as hunting, fishing, birdwatching, or hiking. Use values may also include indirect uses. For example, an Alaskan wilderness area provides direct use values to the people who visit the area. Other people might enjoy watching a television show about the area and its wildlife, thus receiving indirect use values. People may also receive indirect use values from an input that helps to produce something else that people use directly. For example, the lower organisms on the aquatic food chain provide indirect use values to recreational anglers who catch the fish that eat them.
Option value is the value that people place on having the option to enjoy something in the future, although they may not currently use it. Thus, it is a type of use value. For example, a person may hope to visit the Alaskan wilderness area sometime in the future, and thus would be willing to pay something to preserve the area in order to maintain that option.Similarly, bequest value is the value that people place on knowing that future generations will have the option to enjoy something. Thus, bequest value is measured by peoples’ willingness to pay to preserve the natural environment for future generations. For example, a person may be willing to pay to protect the Alaskan wilderness area so that future generations will have the opportunity to enjoy it.
Non-use values, also referred to as “passive use” values, are values that are not associated with actual use, or even the option to use a good or service. Existence value is the non-use value that people place on simply knowing that something exists, even if they will never see it or use it. For example, a person might be willing to pay to protect the Alaskan wilderness area, even though he or she never expects or even wants to go there, but simply because he or she values the fact that it exists. It is clear that a single person may benefit in more than one way from the same ecosystem. Thus, total economic value is the sum of all the relevant use and non-use values for a good or service. You can find more about this topic here.
1.) Costanza, R., et all (1997) The value of the world's ecosystem service and natural capital. Nature 387: 253-260.
2. ) Brenner-Guillermo, J. (2007) Valuation of ecosystem services in the Catalan coastal zone. Marine Sciences, Polytechnic University of Catalonia.
3.) UK Environment Agency (1999) River Ancholme flood storage area progression. Report E3475/01/001 prepared by Posford Duvivier Environment.
4 .) Brenner-Guillermo, J. (2007) Valuation of ecosystem services in the Catalan coastal zone. Marine Sciences, Polytechnic University of Catalonia.
|Mapped Area (Acres)||Digitized Area (Acres)||Ecosystem Value ($/acre)||Total Annual Value|
|Open Water |
|Streams (in meters)  |
|Total Park Area  |